Chemistry Syllabus for JEE Mains & Advanced – 2021

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Chemistry Syllabus for JEE Mains
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Chemistry Syllabus For JEE Mains

Below is a list of all the concepts covered in JEE Main Chemistry Syllabus for each part.

Physical Chemistry Syllabus

Unit 1 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
  • Matter and its nature, Dalton’s the atomic theory, the concept of the atom, molecule, element, and compound.
  • Physical quantities and their measurements in Chemistry, precision, and accuracy, significant figures, S.I. Units, dimensional analysis.
  • Laws of chemical combination.
  • Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept, molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formulae.
  • Chemical equations and stoichiometry.
Unit 2 States of Matter
  • Classification of matter into solid, liquid and gaseous states.
  • Gaseous State: Measurable properties of gases; Gas laws – Boyle’s law, Charles’s law, Graham’s law of diffusion, Avogadro’s law, Dalton’s law of partial pressure.
  • The concept of the Absolute scale of temperature; Ideal gas equation, Kinetic theory of gases (only postulates).
  • The concept of average, root mean square and most probable velocities.
  • Real gases, deviation from Ideal behaviour, compressibility factor, van der Waals equation, liquefaction of gases, critical constants.
  • Liquid State: Properties of liquids – vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension and effect of temperature on them (qualitative treatment only).
  • Solid State: Classification of solids-molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea).
  • Bragg’s Law and its applications.
  • Unit cell and lattices, packing in solids (fcc, bcc and hcp lattices), voids, calculations involving unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids.
  • Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties.
Unit 3 Atomic Structure
  • Discovery of subatomic particles (electron, proton, and neutron).
  • Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their limitations.
  • Nature of electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effect.
  • The spectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr model of hydrogen atom – its postulates, derivation of the relations for energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits, limitations of Bohr’s model.
  • Dual nature of matter, de-Broglie relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle.
  • Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics, the quantum mechanical model of an atom, its important features, the concept of atomic orbitals as one electron wave functions.
  • Variation of Ψ1 and Ψ2 with r for 1s and 2s orbitals; various quantum numbers (principal, angular momentum, and magnetic quantum numbers), and their significance.
  • Shapes of s, p and d – orbitals, electron spin and spin quantum number.
  • Rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of elements, the extra stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals.
Unit 4 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
  • Kossel – Lewis approach to chemical bond formation, the concept of ionic and covalent bonds.
  • Ionic Bonding: Formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds; calculation of lattice enthalpy.
  • Covalent Bonding: Concept of electronegativity, Fajan’s rule, dipole moment; Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory and shapes of simple molecules.
  • Quantum mechanical approach to covalent bonding: Valence bond theory, Its important features, the concept of hybridization involving s, p, and d orbitals; Resonance.
  • Molecular Orbital Theory: Its important features, LCAOs, types of molecular orbitals (bonding, antibonding), sigma and pi-bonds, molecular orbital electronic configurations of homonuclear diatomic molecules, the concept of bond order, bond length and bond energy.
  • Elementary idea of metallic bonding, Hydrogen bonding, and its applications.
Unit 5 Chemical Thermodynamics
  • Fundamentals of thermodynamics: System and surroundings, extensive and intensive properties, state functions, types of processes.
  • First law of thermodynamics: Concept of work, heat internal energy, and enthalpy, heat capacity, molar heat capacity
  • Hess’s law of constant heat summation.
  • Enthalpies of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, hydration, ionization, and solution.
  • The second law of thermodynamics: Spontaneity of processes; Delta S of the universe and Delta G of the system as criteria for spontaneity, Delta Go (Standard Gibbs energy change) and equilibrium constant.
Unit 6 Solutions
  • Different methods for expressing the concentration of a solution: molality, molarity, mole fraction, percentage (by volume and mass both), the vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult’s Law.
  • Ideal and non-ideal solutions, vapour pressure – composition, plots for ideal and non-ideal solutions.
  • Colligative properties of dilute solutions, relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressure.
  • Determination of molecular mass using colligative properties.
  • Abnormal value of molar mass, Hoff factor, and its significance.
Unit 7 Equilibrium
  • Meaning of equilibrium, the concept of dynamic equilibrium.
  • Equilibria involving physical processes: Solid – liquid, liquid – gas and solid – gas equilibria, Henry’s law, a general characteristic of equilibrium involving physical processes.
  • Equilibria involving chemical processes: Law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants (Kp and Kc) and their significance, the significance of Delta G and Delta Go in chemical equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature, the effect of the catalyst.
  • Le Chatelier’s principle.
  • Ionic equilibrium: Weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, various concepts of acids and bases (Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis) and their ionization, acid-base equilibria (including multistage ionization) and ionization constants, ionization of water, pH scale, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility products, buffer solutions.
Unit 8 Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry
  • Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules for assigning oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions.
  • Electrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivities and their variation with concentration.
  • Kohlrausch’s law and its applications.
  • Electrochemical cells: Electrolytic and Galvanic cells, different types of electrodes, electrode potentials including standard electrode potential, half – cell and cell reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell and its measurement.
  • Nernst equation and its applications; Relationship between cell potential and Gibbs’ energy change.
  • Dry cell and lead accumulator, Fuel cells.
  • Corrosion and its prevention.
Unit 9 Chemical Kinetics
  • The rate of a chemical reaction, factors affecting the rate of reactions: concentration, temperature, pressure, and catalyst.
  • Elementary and complex reactions, order and molecularity of reactions, rate law, rate constant and its units, differential and integral forms of zero and first order reactions, their characteristics and half-lives, the effect of temperature on the rate of reactions.
  • Arrhenius theory, activation energy and its calculation, collision theory of bimolecular gaseous reactions (no derivation).
Unit 10 Surface Chemistry
  • Adsorption: Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics, factors affecting the adsorption of gases on solids: Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions.
  • Catalysis: Homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity of solid catalysts, enzyme catalysis, and its mechanism.
  • Colloidal state: Distinction among true solutions, colloids, and suspensions, classification of colloids: lyophilic, lyophobic.
  • Multimolecular, macromolecular and associated colloids (micelles), preparation and properties of colloids: Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation, and flocculation.
  • Emulsions and their characteristics.

The detailed list of all the concepts covered in JEE Main Chemistry Syllabus for Inorganic Chemistry is described below.

Inorganic Chemistry Syllabus

Unit 11 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
  • Modern periodic law and present form of the periodic table.
  • s, p, d and f block elements.
  • Periodic trends in properties of elements atomic and ionic radii, ionization enthalpy.
  • Electron gain enthalpy, valence, oxidation states and chemical reactivity.
Unit 12 General Principles and Process of Isolation of Metals
  • Modes of occurrence of elements in nature, minerals, ores.
  • Steps involved in the extraction of metals: concentration, reduction (chemical and electrolytic methods) and refining with special reference to the extraction of Al, Cu, Zn, and Fe.
  • Thermodynamic and electrochemical principles involved in the extraction of metals.
Unit 13 Hydrogen
  • The position of hydrogen in periodic table, isotopes, preparation, properties, and uses of hydrogen.
  • Physical and chemical properties of water and heavy water.
  • Structure, preparation, reactions, and uses of hydrogen peroxide.
  • Classification of hydrides: ionic, covalent and interstitial.
  • Hydrogen as a fuel.
Unit 14 S Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals)
  • Group 1 and Group 2 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationships.
  • Preparation and properties of some important compounds: sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate.
  • Industrial uses of lime, limestone, Plaster of Paris and cement.
  • The biological significance of Na, K, Mg and Ca.
Unit 15 P Block Elements
  • Group 13 to Group 18 Elements: General Introduction, Electronic configuration, and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements across the periods and down the groups; unique behaviour of the first element in each group. Groupwise study of the p block elements.
  • Group 13: Preparation, properties, and uses of boron and aluminium; Structure, properties and uses of borax, boric acid, diborane, boron trifluoride, aluminium chloride, and alums.
  • Group 14: Tendency for catenation; Structure, properties, and uses of allotropes and oxides of carbon, silicon tetrachloride, silicates, zeolites, and silicones.
  • Group 15: Properties and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus; Allotropic forms of phosphorus; Preparation, properties, structure, and uses of ammonia, nitric acid, phosphine and phosphorus halides, (PCl3, PCl5); Structures of oxides and oxoacids of nitrogen and phosphorus.
  • Group 16: Preparation, properties, structures and uses of dioxygen and ozone; Allotropic forms of sulfur; Preparation, properties, structures, and uses of sulfur dioxide, sulphuric acid (including its industrial preparation); Structures of oxoacids of sulfur.
  • Group 17: Preparation, properties, and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid; Trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen halides; Structures of Interhalogen compounds and oxides and oxyacids of halogens.
  • Group 18: Occurrence and uses of noble gases; Structures of fluorides and oxides of xenon.
Unit 16 D and F Block Elements
  • Transition Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics, general trends in properties of the first-row transition elements: physical properties, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, atomic radii, colour, catalytic behaviour, magnetic properties, complex formation, interstitial compounds, alloy formation.
  • Preparation, properties, and uses of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
  • Inner Transition Elements: Lanthanides, Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction, and Actinoids: Electronic configuration and oxidation states.
Unit 17 Coordination Compounds
  • Introduction to coordination compounds, Werner’s theory.
  • ligands, coordination number, denticity, chelation.
  • IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism.
  • Bonding-Valence bond approach and basic ideas of Crystal field theory, colour and magnetic properties.
  • Importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and in biological systems).
Unit 18 Environmental Chemistry
  • Environmental pollution: Atmospheric, water, and soil.
  • Atmospheric pollution: Tropospheric and stratospheric.
  • Gaseous pollutants: Oxides of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur, hydrocarbons; their sources, harmful effects, and prevention.
  • Greenhouse effect and Global warming, acid rain.
  • Particulate pollutants: Smoke, dust, smog, fumes, mist; their sources, harmful effects, and prevention.
  • Stratospheric pollution: Formation and breakdown of ozone, depletion of ozone layer its mechanism and effects.
  • Water Pollution: Major pollutants such as pathogens, organic wastes, and chemical pollutants; their harmful effects and prevention.
  • Soil pollution: Major pollutants such as Pesticides (insecticides, herbicides and fungicides) their harmful effects and prevention.
  • Strategies to control environmental pollution.

The detailed list of all the concepts covered in JEE Main Chemistry Syllabus for Organic Chemistry is described below.

Organic Chemistry Syllabus

Unit 19 Purification and Characterisation of Organic Compounds
  • Purification: Crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction, and chromatography principles and their applications.
  • Qualitative analysis: Detection of nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and halogens.
  • Quantitative analysis (basic principles only): Estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulfur, phosphorus.
  • Calculations of empirical formula and molecular formulae; Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis.
Unit 20 Some Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry
  • Tetravalency of carbon; Shapes of simple molecules – hybridization (s and p).
  • Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups: -C = C- and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur; Homologous series.
  • Isomerism: structural and stereoisomerism.
  • Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC): Covalent bond fission Homolytic and heterolytic: free radicals, carbocations, and carbanions; stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles.
  • Electronic displacement in a covalent bond: Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance, and hyperconjugation.
  • Common types of organic reactions: Substitution, addition, elimination, and rearrangement.
Unit 21 Hydrocarbons
  • Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties and reactions.
  • Alkanes: Conformations; Sawhorse and Newman projections (of ethane); Mechanism of halogenation of alkanes.
  • Alkenes: Geometrical isomerism.
  • Mechanism of electrophilic addition: addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikoff’s and peroxide effect); Ozonolysis, oxidation, and polymerization.
  • Alkynes: Acidic character; Addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides; Polymerization.
  • Aromatic hydrocarbons: Nomenclature, benzene structure and aromaticity.
  • Mechanism of electrophilic substitution: halogenation, nitration, Friedel Crafts alkylation and acylation, directive influence of the functional group in monosubstituted benzene.
Unit 22 Organic Compounds Containing Halogens
  • General methods of preparation, properties, and reactions.
  • Nature of C-X bond.
  • Mechanisms of substitution reactions.
  • Uses, Environmental effects of chloroform, iodoform, freons, and DDT.
Unit 23 Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen
  • General methods of preparation, properties, reactions, and uses.
  • Alcohols: Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration.
  • Phenols: Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation, nitration, and sulphonation, Reimer Tiemann reaction.
  • Ethers: Structure.
  • Aldehyde and Ketones: Nature of carbonyl group; Nucleophilic addition to >C=O group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones.
  • Important reactions such as Nucleophilic addition reactions (addition of HCN, NH3 and its derivatives), Grignard reagent; oxidation; reduction (Wolff Kishner and Clemmensen); the acidity of hydrogen, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction.
  • Chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and Ketones.
  • Carboxylic Acids: Acidic strength and factors affecting it.
Unit 24 Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen
  • General methods of preparation, properties, reactions, and uses.
  • Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, basic character and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and their basic character.
  • Diazonium Salts: Importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Unit 25 Polymers
  • General introduction and classification of polymers, general methods of polymerization addition and condensation, co-polymerization.
  • Natural and synthetic rubber and vulcanization.
  • Some important polymers with emphasis on their monomers and uses, polyethene, nylon, polyester, and bakelite.
Unit 26 Biomolecules
  • General introduction and importance of biomolecules.
  • Carbohydrates: Classification: aldoses and ketoses; monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose) and polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen).
  • Proteins: Elementary Idea of amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides; Proteins: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins, enzymes.
  • Vitamins: Classification and functions.
  • B Chemical constitution of DNA and RNA. Biological functions of nucleic acids.
Unit 27 Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemicals in medicines: Analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines their meaning and common examples.
  • Chemicals in food: Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents common examples.
  • Cleansing agents: Soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
Unit 28 Principles Related to Practical Chemistry
  • Detection of extra elements (N, S, halogens) in organic compounds.
  • Detection of the following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone), carboxyl and amino groups in organic compounds.
  • The chemistry involved in the preparation of the following: Inorganic compounds: Mohr’s salt, potash alum, and Organic compounds: Acetanilide, p-nitro acetanilide, aniline yellow, iodoform.
  • The chemistry involved in the titrimetric exercises: Acids bases and the use of indicators, oxalic-acid vs KMnO4, Mohr’s salt vs KMnO4.
  • Chemical principles involved in the qualitative salt analysis: Cations: Pb2+, Cu2+, AI3+, Fe3+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+, and Anions: CO32-, S2-, SO42-, NO2-, NO3-, CI-, Br, I. (Insoluble salts excluded).
  • Chemical principles involved in the following experiments: Enthalpy of solution of CuSO4, Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid and strong base, Preparation of lyophilic and lyophobic sols, and Kinetic study of the reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature.

 

JEE Advanced Chemistry Syllabus

Given below is the detailed list of all the topics covered in JEE Advanced chemistry syllabus for Organic, Inorganic and Physical Chemistry.

Physical Chemistry Syllabus

Unit 1 General topics
  • The concept of atoms and molecules, Mole concept, Dalton’s atomic theory.
  • Balanced chemical equations, Chemical formulas, Calculations on mole concept involving common oxidation and reduction.
  • Neutralization and displacement reactions.
  • Concentration in terms of mole fraction, molality, molarity, and normality.
Unit 2 Liquid and Gaseous States
  • The absolute scale of temperature, ideal gas equation, Deviation from ideality, van der Waals equation.
  • Kinetic theory of gases, average, root mean square and most probable velocities and their relation with temperature.
  • Law of partial pressures, Vapour pressure and Diffusion of gases.
Unit 3 Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding
  • Bohr model, the spectrum of a hydrogen atom, quantum numbers, Wave-particle duality, de Broglie hypothesis and Uncertainty principle.
  • Qualitative quantum mechanical picture of the hydrogen atom, shapes of s, p and d orbitals, Electronic configurations of elements (up to atomic number 36), Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle and Hund’s rule.
  • Orbital overlap and the covalent bond; Hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals only; Orbital energy diagrams for homonuclear diatomic species; Hydrogen bond.
  • Polarity in molecules, dipole moment (qualitative aspects only), VSEPR model and shapes of molecules (linear, angular, triangular, square planar, pyramidal, square pyramidal, trigonal bipyramidal, tetrahedral and octahedral).
Unit 4 Energetics
  • First law of Thermodynamics, Internal energy, work, and heat.
  • Pressure-Volume work, Enthalpy, Hess’s law; Heat of reaction, fusion, and vaporization.
  • The second law of Thermodynamics, Entropy, Free energy, and criterion of spontaneity.
Unit 5 Chemical Equilibrium
  • Law of mass action, Equilibrium constant, and Le Chatelier’s principle (effect of concentration, temperature and pressure).
  • The significance of Delta G and Delta G0 in chemical equilibrium, Solubility product, common ion effect, pH, and buffer solutions.
  • Acids and bases (Bronsted and Lewis concepts) and Hydrolysis of salts.
Unit 6 Electrochemistry
  • Electrochemical cells and cell reactions; Standard electrode potentials; Nernst equation and its relation to Delta G.
  • Electrochemical series, emf of galvanic cells, Faraday’s laws of electrolysis.
  • Electrolytic conductance, specific, equivalent and molar conductivity, Kohlrausch’s law, and Concentration cells.
Unit 7 Chemical Kinetics
  • Rates of chemical reactions, Order of reactions, and Rate constant.
  • First order reactions, Temperature dependence of rate constant (Arrhenius equation).
Unit 8 Solid State
  • Classification of solids, crystalline state, and seven crystal systems (cell parameters a, b, c, Alpha, Beta, Gamma).
  • Close-packed structure of solids (cubic), packing in fcc, bcc and hcp lattices.
  • Nearest neighbours, ionic radii, simple ionic compounds, point defects.
Unit 9 Solutions
  • Raoult’s law, Molecular weight determination from lowering of vapour pressure, the elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point.
  • Surface chemistry: Elementary concepts of adsorption (excluding adsorption isotherms).
  • Colloids: types, methods of preparation and general properties; Elementary ideas of emulsions, surfactants, and micelles (only definitions and examples).
Unit 10 Nuclear chemistry
  • Radioactivity: isotopes and isobars, Properties of Alpha, Beta, and Gamma rays.
  • Kinetics of radioactive decay (decay series excluded), carbon dating.
  • Stability of nuclei with respect to proton-neutron ratio; Brief discussion on fission and fusion reactions.

Inorganic Chemistry Syllabus

Unit 1 Isolation/preparation and properties of the non-metals
  • Boron, silicon, nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, sulphur, and halogens.
  • Properties of allotropes of carbon (only diamond and graphite), phosphorus and sulphur.
Unit 2 Preparation and properties of the compounds
  • Oxides, peroxides, hydroxides, carbonates, bicarbonates, chlorides and sulphates of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium.
  • Boron: diborane, boric acid, borax, and Aluminium: alumina, aluminium chloride and alums.
  • Carbon: oxides and oxyacid (carbonic acid), and Silicon: silicones, silicates and silicon carbide.
  • Nitrogen: oxides, oxyacids and ammonia, and Phosphorus: oxides, oxyacids (phosphorus acid phosphoric acid) and phosphine.
  • Oxygen: ozone and hydrogen peroxide, and Sulphur: hydrogen sulphide, oxides, sulphurous acid, sulphuric acid and sodium thiosulphate.
  • Halogens: hydrohalic acids, oxides and oxyacids of chlorine, bleaching powder; Xenon fluorides.
Unit 3 Transition elements (3d series)
  • Definition, general characteristics, oxidation states and their stabilities, colour (excluding the details of electronic transitions) and calculation of spin-only magnetic moment.
  • Coordination compounds: nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, cis-trans and ionisation isomerisms, hybridization and geometries of mononuclear coordination compounds (linear, tetrahedral, square planar and octahedral).
Unit 4 Preparation and properties of the following compounds
  • Oxides and chlorides of tin, and lead.
  • Oxides, chlorides and sulphates of Fe2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+.
  • Potassium permanganate, potassium dichromate, silver oxide, silver nitrate, silver thiosulphate.
Unit 5 Ores and minerals
  • Commonly occurring ores and minerals of iron, copper, tin, lead, magnesium, aluminum, zinc, and silver.
  • Extractive metallurgy: Chemical principles, and reactions only (industrial details excluded).
Unit 6 Reduction Methods
  • Carbon reduction method (iron and tin), Self-reduction method (copper and lead), Electrolytic reduction method (magnesium and aluminium), Cyanide process (silver and gold).
  • Principles of qualitative analysis: Groups I to V (only Ag+, Hg2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Bi3+, Fe3+, Cr3+, Al3+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Zn2+, Mn2+ and Mg2+); Nitrate, halides (excluding fluoride), sulphate and sulphide.

Organic Chemistry Syllabus

Unit 1 Basic Concepts
  • Hybridization of carbon; _ and _-bonds; Shapes of simple organic molecules, Structural and geometrical isomerism, Optical isomerism of compounds containing up to two asymmetric centres, (R,S and E,Z nomenclature excluded).
  • IUPAC nomenclature of simple organic compounds (only hydrocarbons, monofunctional, and bifunctional compounds), Conformations of ethane and butane (Newman projections), Resonance and hyperconjugation.
  • Keto-enol tautomerism, Determination of empirical and molecular formulae of simple compounds (only combustion method); Hydrogen bonds: definition and their effects on physical properties of alcohols and carboxylic acids.
  • Inductive and resonance effects on acidity and basicity of organic acids and bases, Polarity and inductive effects in alkyl halides.
  • Reactive intermediates produced during homolytic and heterolytic bond cleavage, Formation, structure and stability of carbocations, carbanions and free radicals.
Unit 2 Preparation, properties, and reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes
  • Physical properties of alkenes and alkynes (boiling points, density and dipole moments); Acidity of alkynes.
  • Acid-catalyzed hydration of alkenes and alkynes (excluding the stereochemistry of addition and elimination), Reactions of alkenes with KMnO4 and ozone.
  • Reduction of alkenes and alkynes; Preparation of alkenes and alkynes by elimination reactions.
  • Electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes with X2, HX, HOX, and H2O (X=halogen), Addition reactions of alkynes, and Metal acetylides.
Unit 3 Properties, Preparation, and reactions of Alkanes
  • Homologous series, physical properties of alkanes (melting points, boiling points and density).
  • Combustion and halogenation of alkanes.
  • Preparation of alkanes by Wurtz reaction and decarboxylation reactions.
Unit 4 Reactions of Phenol and Benzene
  • Structure and aromaticity, Electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation, nitration, sulphonation, Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation, Effect of o-, m- and p-directing groups in monosubstituted benzenes.
  • Phenols: Acidity, electrophilic substitution reactions (halogenation, nitration and sulphonation); Reimer-Tiemann reaction, and Kolbe reaction.
Unit 5 Characteristic Reactions
  • Alkyl halides: rearrangement reactions of alkyl carbocation, Grignard reactions, nucleophilic substitution reactions.
  • Alcohols: esterification, dehydration and oxidation, reaction with sodium, phosphorus halides, ZnCl2/concentrated HCl, conversion of alcohols into aldehydes and Ketones.
  • Ethers: Preparation by Williamson’s Synthesis; Aldehydes and Ketones: oxidation, reduction, oxime and hydrazone formation; aldol condensation, Perkin reaction; Cannizzaro reaction; haloform reaction and nucleophilic addition reactions (Grignard addition).
  • Carboxylic acids: formation of esters, acid chlorides, and amides, ester hydrolysis.
  • Amines: basicity of substituted anilines and aliphatic amines, preparation from nitro compounds, reaction with nitrous acid, the azo coupling reaction of diazonium salts of aromatic amines, Sandmeyer and related reactions of diazonium salts; carbylamine reaction.
  • Haloarenes: nucleophilic aromatic substitution in haloarenes and substituted haloarenes (excluding Benzyne mechanism and Cine substitution).
Unit 6 Carbohydrates
  • Classification, mono- and disaccharides (glucose and sucrose), Oxidation, reduction, glycoside formation and hydrolysis of sucrose.
  • Amino acids and peptides: General structure (only primary structure for peptides) and physical properties.
  • Properties and uses of some important polymers: Natural rubber, cellulose, nylon, Teflon, and PVC.
Unit 7 Practical Organic Chemistry
  • Detection of elements (N, S, halogens).
  • Detection and identification of the following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone), carboxyl, amino and nitro.
  • Chemical methods of separation of mono-functional organic compounds from binary mixtures.

 

 

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